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  • Writer's pictureChandni Rijhwani (Bachelor in computer application)

From White Hat to Black: The Spectrum of Hackers


Table of contents

  • What is hacking?

  • Explain types of hackers?

  • What to do if your device is hacked by hackers?

  • How can you secure your device against hacking threats?

  • What is the difference between White Hat Hackers and Black Hat Hackers?

  • Conclusion

  • Frequently Asked Question (FAQs)

1. What is hacking?

"The act of gaining unauthorized access to computer systems or networks for the purpose of obtaining data, causing damage, or altering system functions, often driven by various motives such as curiosity, malicious intent, financial gain, or activism."

It's worth noting that while the term "hacking" often carries a negative connotation in popular media, it originally referred to someone who was skilled and creative with computer systems. Today, hacking can be both malicious (black hat) and beneficial (white hat), depending on the intent behind the action.

2. Explain types of hackers?

The hacking community is diverse, and hackers are often categorized based on their intentions, methods, or the legalities of their activities. Here are some common types of hackers:

1. White Hat Hackers (Ethical Hackers):

  • Intention: These hackers use their skills for good. They're often employed to find vulnerabilities in systems and help organizations patch them.

  • Legality: Their actions are legal since they obtain permission before probing systems.

2. Black Hat Hackers:

  • Intention: These individuals hack with malicious intent, such as stealing data, causing damage, or distributing malware.

  • Legality: Their actions are illegal since they access systems without permission.

3. Grey Hat Hackers:

  • Intention: These hackers operate in a moral gray area. They might break into systems without permission but do so without malicious intent, often to notify the owner of vulnerabilities.

  • Legality: Actions can be illegal, even if there's no harmful intent, because they don't obtain prior permission.

4. Hacktivists:

  • Intention: Hackers who are motivated by political or social causes. They often deface websites or steal data to make a point or bring attention to a cause.

  • Example: Groups like Anonymous.

5. Script Kiddies:

  • Intention: These are generally less skilled individuals who don't create their own tools but use pre-written software or scripts to hack. They're often motivated by a desire for notoriety rather than financial or political gains.

  • Legality: Their actions are usually illegal, depending on the intent and the target.

6. State-sponsored Hackers:

  • Intention: Employed by governments to gather intelligence, disrupt rival nations' activities, or achieve specific geopolitical goals through cyber means.

  • Legality: The legality is complex, as these actions might be legal in the hacker's home country but illegal or seen as acts of aggression elsewhere.

7. Cyber Mercenaries:

  • Intention: Hackers or groups that are hired by individuals, organizations, or governments to carry out specific tasks, which can range from espionage to sabotage.

  • Legality: Depends on the nature of the task and jurisdictions involved.

8. Blue Hat Hackers:

  • Intention: Individuals who test an organization's defenses after being specifically invited to do so, often before a product launch or a significant update. The term can also refer to hackers who identify vulnerabilities in software during bug bounty programs.

  • Legality: Actions are legal when done under explicit permission.

9. Green Hat Hackers:

  • Intention: These are beginners in the hacking world, often characterized by their eagerness to learn.

  • Legality: Depends on how they apply their growing knowledge.

10. Red Hat Hackers:

  • Intention: These individuals focus on attacking black hat hackers. Instead of reporting the malicious hacker's activities, they might take aggressive actions like launching counterattacks.

  • Legality: Often operates in a gray area, as their methods can be illegal.

3. What to do if your device is hacked by hackers?


If you suspect your device has been hacked, it's crucial to act quickly to secure your information and prevent further unauthorized access. Here's a step-by-step guide on what to do:

  1. Disconnect from the Internet: Physically disconnect your device from the internet or turn off Wi-Fi and mobile data. This prevents the hacker from accessing your device remotely.

  2. Boot into Safe Mode: Restart your computer in Safe Mode to prevent any malicious programs from running. Safe Mode only loads essential programs and services.

  3. Scan for Malware: Use a reputable antivirus or anti-malware program to scan and remove any malicious software. Update the software beforehand (from a safe, uninfected device) to ensure it can detect the latest threats.

  4. Check Installed Apps/Programs: Review the installed applications on your device and uninstall any that you don't recognize or didn't install.

  5. Change Passwords: Start with critical accounts such as email (since it can be used to reset other account passwords), financial sites, and other sensitive services. Use strong, unique passwords for each account, and consider using a password manager to keep track of them.

  6. Enable Two-Factor Authentication (2FA): If available, activate 2FA for your online accounts, adding an extra layer of security.

  7. Check for Software Updates: Ensure your operating system, applications, and antivirus software are up to date. Vulnerabilities in outdated software can be exploited by hackers.

  8. Monitor Accounts: Keep an eye on financial statements, emails, and other important accounts for any suspicious activity.

  9. Backup Data: If you haven't already, backup your essential data to an external drive or cloud storage. If things go awry, you'll still have access to your information.

  10. Check Network Settings: Ensure no unwanted proxies have been set up or changes made to your DNS settings. Malware or hackers might alter these to intercept or redirect your traffic.

  11. Reinstall Operating System: If you're unable to remove the malicious software or if your device is still behaving unpredictably, the most secure step might be to do a clean install of your operating system. Remember to backup any important data first!

  12. Stay Informed: Regularly check for news about recent hacks or vulnerabilities. Knowledge of threats can help you take proactive measures.

  13. Report the Incident: If sensitive personal or financial information was compromised, report the incident to the relevant authorities. This might include credit reporting agencies, financial institutions, or law enforcement.

  14. Educate Yourself: Understanding common tactics used by hackers, such as phishing, can help prevent future breaches. Be cautious about opening unsolicited emails, avoid downloading attachments from unknown sources, and be skeptical of requests for personal or financial information.

4. How can you secure your device against hacking threats?


To protect your device from hackers and potential threats, it's crucial to implement a combination of technical measures and good security habits. Here are key safety measures you can take:

1. Use Strong Passwords:

  • Avoid easily guessable passwords like "password123" or "admin."

  • Use a combination of upper- and lower-case letters, numbers, and symbols.

  • Consider using a passphrase or a combination of unrelated words.

  • Avoid using the same password for multiple accounts.

2. Enable Two-Factor Authentication (2FA): Where available, always enable 2FA for added security. This often involves receiving a code on your phone that you'll need to enter alongside your password.

3. Regularly Update Software:

  • Always keep your operating system, applications, and security software up to date. Updates often contain patches for known security vulnerabilities.

4. Install Antivirus/Anti-malware Software: Use reputable security software and keep it updated. Schedule regular scans to check for malware.

5. Use a Firewall: A firewall monitors and controls incoming and outgoing network traffic based on security policies.

6. Be Cautious with Email Attachments and Links: Don't open email attachments or click on links from unknown senders. They might be phishing attempts or contain malware.

7. Use a VPN: A Virtual Private Network encrypts your internet connection, making it more challenging for hackers to intercept your data.

8. Disable Unnecessary Services: Turn off services and features you don't use, both on your devices and online accounts.

9. Secure Your Wi-Fi:

  • Use strong encryption (like WPA3).

  • Change your router's default login credentials.

  • Regularly update your router's firmware.

10. Limit Sharing and App Permissions: Only give applications and websites permissions that are necessary for them to function. Regularly check and manage app permissions.

11. Backup Regularly: Ensure you have regular backups of your important files. This can be a lifesaver in case of ransomware attacks or data corruption.

12. Be Cautious of Public Wi-Fi: Avoid accessing sensitive information when connected to public or open Wi-Fi networks. If you must, use a VPN.

13. Secure Physical Access:

  • Use device locks.

  • Consider encrypting your device storage.

  • Be wary of leaving devices unattended in public places.

14. Educate Yourself: Stay informed about the latest security threats and practices.

15. Check for HTTPS: Before entering any personal or financial information on a website, ensure the site uses HTTPS (the padlock symbol in the address bar).

16. Avoid Pirated Software: Pirated or cracked software often contains malware or might make your device vulnerable to attacks.

17. Turn Off Bluetooth When Not in Use: An active Bluetooth connection can be an entry point for hackers.

18. Be Wary of Unsolicited Calls or Texts: Scammers might pose as tech support or service providers to extract information or get you to perform actions that compromise your device.

19. Regularly Audit Your Accounts: Periodically review the security settings and active sessions/logins on your online accounts.

20. Use Encrypted Messaging Apps: When possible, use messaging apps that offer end-to-end encryption.

5. What is the difference between White Hat Hackers and Black Hat Hackers?

The primary difference between White Hat Hackers and Black Hat Hackers lies in their intentions and the legality of their actions:


White Hat Hackers (Ethical Hackers):

1. Intent and Purpose:

  • White Hat Hackers use their skills for benevolent purposes. Their primary aim is to identify vulnerabilities and weaknesses in a system from the perspective of a malicious hacker but use this knowledge to improve security.

2. Legality and Authorization:

  • Their hacking activities are legal and ethical because they operate with the explicit permission of the organization that owns the system.

  • They have contracts and agreements in place that define the scope of their activities and the boundaries they shouldn't cross.

3. Methods:

  • Often employ similar techniques and tools as Black Hat Hackers but in a controlled and authorized environment.

  • They may use penetration testing, vulnerability assessments, and other methods to simulate cyberattacks on a system.

4. Outcome and Reporting:

  • After identifying vulnerabilities, they provide detailed reports and feedback to the organization, helping them to patch and fortify their systems against real threats.

  • Their end goal is always to improve security and protect data.

5. Professional Landscape:

  • Many White Hat Hackers hold certifications like Certified Ethical Hacker (CEH) or Offensive Security Certified Professional (OSCP).

  • They might be employed by cybersecurity firms or work as independent consultants.

Black Hat Hackers:

1. Intent and Purpose:

  • Black Hat Hackers are motivated by personal or financial gain, revenge, or even just the thrill of breaking into forbidden digital territories.

2. Legality and Authorization:

  • Their activities are illegal. They access, manipulate, or damage systems without consent.

  • They often work covertly, trying to avoid detection from law enforcement and security professionals.

3. Methods:

  • They employ a range of hacking techniques to exploit vulnerabilities, such as using malware, ransomware, phishing schemes, or exploiting zero-day vulnerabilities.

4. Outcome:

  • Their actions can result in data theft, financial losses, identity theft, or disruptions in services. They might sell stolen data on the dark web, use it for blackmail, or deploy it for other malicious activities.

5. Professional Landscape:

  • Black Hat Hackers might work alone or be part of larger cybercriminal organizations.

  • While they often possess deep technical knowledge, they use it outside the boundaries of law and ethics.

6. Conclusion


In the vast digital realm, the term "hacker" encapsulates individuals with the skill set to navigate, manipulate, and potentially exploit computer systems. Their motivations, methods, and intentions can vary widely. From ethical "White Hat" hackers, who fortify systems and contribute positively to cybersecurity, to malicious "Black Hat" hackers, driven by personal gain or malicious intent, the spectrum is vast. The common thread is their deep understanding of technology and the systems they interact with. As our world becomes increasingly interconnected and reliant on technology, the role of hackers, both as protectors and potential threats, grows ever more significant. It underscores the importance of robust cybersecurity measures and public awareness to safeguard our digital future. 7. Frequently Asked Question (FAQs)


Q1. How can I protect myself from hackers?

Ans. Regularly update software, use strong unique passwords, enable two-factor authentication, be cautious of email attachments and links, and use security software like antivirus and firewalls.

Q2. Are all hackers bad?

Ans. No, not all hackers have malicious intent. White Hat hackers, or ethical hackers, work to strengthen security.

Q3. Why is hacking considered illegal?

Ans. Unauthorized hacking is illegal because it violates privacy rights, compromises personal and financial data, and disrupts services. However, ethical hacking is legal when performed with proper consent.

Q4. What are hacktivists?

Ans. Hacktivists are hackers who use their skills for political or social causes, often by hacking into systems and leaking information to make a statement or push an agenda.

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